|Principal Languaged||Bengali and Kokborok|
Tripura: At a Glance
Tripura is a state in North-East India which borders Bangladesh, Mizoram and Assam. It is surrounded by Bangladesh on its north, south and west: the length of its international border is 856 km (84 per cent of its total border). It shares a 53 km long border with Assam and a 109 km long border with Mizoram. The state is connected with the rest of India by only one road (NH-44) that runs through the hills to the border of Karimganj District in Assam and then winds through the states of Meghalaya, Assam and North Bengal to Calcutta.
|Other Languages||English, Hindi, Manipuri, Chakma|
|Temperature||Summer :20 to 36° C.
Winter :7 to 27° C. Winter 2°. C Min
|Rainy Season||June to August|
|Average rainfall||2500 mm per annum|
|International Border||856 Km.|
|Literacy rate||73.66% ( As recorded in 2001 Census)|
At the time of Tripura’s merger with effect from October 15 1949 with the Indian Union, the major mode of farming was shifting cultivation or ‘jhum’, which produced little surplus. A small proportion of the plain lands of the State were under settled agriculture undertaken by Bengalis, and the main crop was rice. Most of the plain lands of the State were not under cultivation and were covered with cane-brakes and marshes. Thus at the time of formation of the State, the economy was predominantly agricultural and forest-based, with no industrial base, a low level of urbanization and limited infrastructure.
Tripura, currently a full-fledged state of North-East India, was formerly a princely state that had a long list of tribal kings stretching back into antiquity. According to versions presented in different editions of ‘Rajmala’, princely Tripura’s court chronicle , altogether 184 or 179 kings of the Manikya dynasty had ruled the state . Scholars on Tripura’s history , however, attribute all the pre-fifteenth century kings to the realm of mythology though continued sway of the Manikya dynasty has been attested since the year 1432.
The partition of India in 1947 and political upheavals that had preceded and followed the momentous development had brought an end to princely rule of Manikya dynasty in Tripura. After India became independent, Tripura acceded to the Indian Union on 15 October, 1949 as a “C” category state and became a Union Territory in November 1956. A popularly elected ministry was formed in Tripura in July 1963 and since then, the State has had governments elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. Tripura attained full statehood on January 21, 1972. Tripura is also rich in its composite cultural heritage embodied in archaeological remains , architecture and sculpture.
Agriculture & Irrigation
The economy of Tripura is primarily agrarian. Agriculture is the state’s dominant sector with a contribution of nearly 30 per cent to the Net State Domestic Product (NSDP). According to 2001 census, about 52 per cent of total main workers are engaged in agriculture in Tripura, of which cultivators form about 28 percent and agricultural labourers form roughly 24 percent. Small and marginal farmers constitute almost 90 percent of the total farming community in the state. The net sown area is only about 27 percent of the state’s geographical area.
In Tripura , total cultivable area is about 2.55 lakh hectares of land , out of which, total irrigable area is about 1,17,000 hectares or 45.88% which is under irrigation (roughly about 79 thousand hectares through surface water + 38 thousand hectares through ground water). An additional about 23,441 hectares of land are proposed to be brought under assured irrigation by the year 2011. The state government is currently implementing a ten year perspective plan (2000-2012) with emphasis on nine specific points to achieve self-sufficiency in food production.
At the time of preparation of the Perspective Plan, emphasis was put on
- HYV certified seed production in Govt through Registered Seed Growers,
- Varietal replacement,
- Enhancing consumption of plant nutrients,
- Exploitation of full irrigation potential,
- Availability of adequate farm power,
- Institutional credit,
- Training to the farmers,
- Extension of support and
- Involvement of Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs).
In the Perspective Plan, it was also suggested to follow the rice based cropping system and thereby increase the cropping intensity.
Industries & Minerals
The Department of Industries & Commerce was established to promote Village and Small-scale industries as well as medium and large scale industries in the State. While efforts are being made to promote entrepreneurship within the State, the outside investors in the public and private sectors are also encouraged both for their financial capabilities and technical expertise, for the medium and large-scale units.
In conformity with the national policy of revitalization of the rural economy, the Govt. has placed highest priority on the development of Small Scale, Village & Traditional Industries considering the fact that more than 80% of Tripura’s population live in villages and the state’s traditional industries are village oriented. All techno-economic assistance like EDP training etc are being provided to the new generation entrepreneurs right from identification of the project to its implementation.
The major existing industrial area is the Industrial Growth Centre Complex at Bodhjungnagar which also includes Food Park, Rubber Park and Export Promotion Industrial Park. The other industrial sites near Agartala as the main business and industrial centres are Dukli, Arundhatinagar and Badharghat. In addition, Kumarghat in Kailasahar subdivision of north Tripura is also located close to a potential industrial and business centre.
In Tripura, the mineral resources are minor amounts of glass sands, limestone, plastic clay and hard rock and all of these materials are being used in varying degrees. Setting up of ceramic tiles unit and other mineral based industries are being encouraged in the private sector. Efforts will also be made to set up Plastic Clay and Glass Sand industries where natural gas has added advantage of being used as a fuel.
Travel & Tourism
Tripura is an attractive tourist destination with rich flora, fauna and spectacular sights that provide visual delight. The state has a rich cultural heritage. There is also great potential for development of tourist circuits, involving all the NE states and Bangladesh as well. All these offer attractive opportunities for the growth and development of Hospitality Industry.
Endowed with rich variety of tourist attractions, Tripura offers vast potential for growth in this sector. With an area of 10,491.69 Sq. Km, Tripura is one of the smallest States in the country. But this ancient State with its natural beauty of lustrous green valleys and the hill ranges covered with varied flora and fauna, the fascinating blend of culture, glorious history and traditional art and craft is in a highly advantageous position for development of tourism. For convenience of tourists the State has been divided into two tourist circuits. One is west-south Tripura circuit covering the tourist destinations of west and south Tripura Districts and the other tourist circuit is west-north Tripura circuit covering the tourist destinations of north Tripura and Dhalai District. The entire State is having huge potential in tourism, specially eco-tourism, religious tourism, heritage tourism, hill tourism, rural tourism etc.
Tripura has already emerged as a major tourist destination with concomitant and positive effect on its economy as the number of domestic as well as foreign tourists pouring in to the state has been steadily growing. Even though the revenue yield from tourism sector to the state coffer in Tripura is not yet as high as it is in tourism-centric states like Goa and Himachal Pradesh, the overall growth of this sector has been impressive over the past decade with promises for more in the coming years. In line with the policies of the government of India the tourism sector is attached great importance by the state government as an independent industry. In the year 2009 the state government launched the Tripura Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC) to unshackle this crucial sector from bureaucratic paraphernalia as well as to further stimulate growth.