|Area||3,42,239 sq. km|
|Principal Languaged||Hindi & Rajasthani|
History and Geography
Rajasthan, the largest State in India area-wise prior to Independence was known as Rajputana. The Rajputs, a martial community ruled over this area for centuries.
The history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3,000 and 1,000 BC, it had a culture akin to that of the Indus Valley civilisation. The Chauhans who dominated Rajput affairs from seventh century and by 12th century they had become an imperial power. After the Chauhans, the Guhilots of Mewar controlled the destiny of the warring tribes. Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent states were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar. Other States were only offshoots of these. All these States accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818 protecting the interest of the princes. This naturally left the people discontented.
After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement. With the introduction of provincial autonomy in 1935 in British India, an agitation for civil liberties and political rights became stronger in Rajasthan. The process of uniting scattered States commenced from 1948 to 1956 when the States Reorganisation Act was promulgated. First came Matsya Union (1948) consisting of a fraction of states, then, slowly and gradually other states merged with this Union. By 1949, Major States like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer joined this Union making it the United State of Greater Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present State of Rajasthan formally came into being, with Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka and Sunel Tappa joining it.
The entire western flank of the State borders with Pakistan, while Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh bound Rajasthan in north-east, south-east and Gujarat in south-west.
Total cultivable area in the State is 225 lakh hectares (2008-2009). The estimated foodgrain production is 161.80 lakh tonnes (2008-09). Principal crops cultivated in the State are rice, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram, wheat, oilseeds, pulses, cotton and tobacco. Cultivation of vegetable and citrus fruits such as orange and malta has also picked up over last few years. Other crops are red chillies, mustard, cumin seeds, fenugreek (methi) and asafoetida (hing).
Industry and Minerals
Endowed with a rich culture, Rajasthan is also rich in minerals and is fast emerging on the industrial scenario of the country. Some of the important Central undertakings are Zinc Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Copper Plant at Khetri Nagar (Jhunjhunu) and Precision Instrument Factory at Kota. Small-scale industrial units numbering 13,16,267 with a capital investment of Rs.8,88,820.70 crore provides employment potential to about 13,16,267 persons in the States as on March 2009. Major industries are textiles and woollens, sugar, cement, glass, sodium plants, oxygen, vegetable dyes, pesticides, zinc, fertilizers, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and electricity metres, sulphuric acid, television sets, synthetic yarn and insulting bricks. Besides, precious and semi-precious stones, caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyers, etc. are other important industrial units.
Rajasthan has rich deposits of zinc concentrates, emerald, granite, gypsum, silver ore, asbestos, feldspar and mica. Promotional Industrial Park of the country has been established and made operational at Sitapura (Jaipur).
Irrigation and Power
By the end of March 2009 irrigation potential of 36.46 lakh hectares was created in the State through various major, medium and minor irrigation projects and additional irrigation potential of 58,067 hectares (excluding IGNP & CAD) had been created. The installed power capacity in the State has become 7019.59Mw upto December 2009 of which 4375.30 Mw is produced from State-owned projects, 766.00 Mw from collaboration projects and 1879.29 Mw from the allocation from Central power generating stations.
Roads: The total length of roads was 1,86,806 km as on March 2009.
Railways: Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kota, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur are main rail junctions of State.
Aviation: : Regular air services connect Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur with Delhi and Mumbai.
Rajasthan is a land of festivals and fairs, besides the national festivals of Holi, Deepawali, Vijayadashmi, Christmas, etc., birth anniversaries of gods and goddesses, saintly figures, folk heroes and heroines are celebrated. Important fairs are Teej, Gangaur (Jaipur), annual Urs of Ajmer Sharif and Galiakot, tribal Kumbh of Beneshwar (Dungarpur), Mahaveer fair at Shrimahavirji in Sawai Madhopur, Ramdeora (Jaisalmer), Janbheslwari fair(Mukam-Bikaner), Kartik Poornima and Cattle Fair (Pushkar-Ajmer) and Shyamji Fair(Sikar), etc.